檔案歸2022年2月7日

威爾揭示馬可·波羅的女兒阿格尼斯的存在

2022年2月7日,星期一

18beplay官网 威尼斯國家檔案館的研究人員發現,探險家馬可·波羅(Marco Polo)有一個以前不知名的女兒叫Agnese。她生存的唯一幸存記錄是她意誌的片段。它的日期為1319年7月7日,名為Fideicommissarii(執行者)她的丈夫Nicoletto Calbo,她的父親Marco Polo和另一個親戚Stefano Polo。

“阿格尼斯的遺囑,” [foscari大學研究員]馬塞洛·​​博洛格納裏(Marcello Bolognari)說,“描繪了家庭生活的親密和親切的肖像。她提到了丈夫尼古洛(Nicoleto),包括尼科萊托(Nicoletto),以及他們的孩子芭芭拉(Barbarella),帕普(Papon)(即“大食者”)和弗朗西西諾(Franceschino)。the diminutives that she used to refer to her children tell us that this young mother wanted to leave something behind for her husband and children, but also — as the document shows — for the children’s tutor (magister) Raffaele da Cremona, their godmother (santola) Benvenuta, and the maid (famula) Reni.”

Before this discovery, Marco was recorded as having had three daughters — Fantina, Bellela and Moreta — with his wife Donata Badoer, but Agnese’s birth predates his marriage in 1300. Marco Polo returned to Venice from his epic voyage east in 1295. He was taken prisoner in 1298 after a naval battle between Venice and Genoa and was released from Genoese prison in 1299, so there is a very brief window for Agnese’s possible birth year.

據我們所知,他隻嫁給了一次,這可能解釋了為什麼阿格尼斯如此堅定地保持在低位,以至於我們才發現她700年後才發現她。這並不是說她一定是出於婚禮而出生的。她的遺囑沒有提及母親,但是當阿格尼斯還是個嬰兒時,母親可能會死亡,而馬可(Marco)成為w夫。但是,如果他們結婚了,就沒有已知的記錄,也沒有證據表明馬可和繼母和同父異母的姐妹一起撫養他的第一個女兒。我們從她的意願中知道,她確實住在同一個社區(聖約翰·克萊斯托姆教堂的contrada或教區)和她的父親和其他巨馬球家族。

馬可(Marco)在阿格尼斯(Agnese)寫下遺囑不到四年之後去世。他在臨終時有一張遺囑,任命了妻子和他們的三個女兒的共同執行者。他的遺囑詳細介紹了幾個個人遺產。Agnese沒有命名。再說一次,這並不一定意味著次要身份,因為她病了足夠生病,可以在1319年二十多歲時寫一份遺囑,很可能很可能在父親的最終疾病之前就去世了。

隻要注意到與馬可·波羅(Marco Polo)有關的問題,他的女兒和遺囑在本世紀晚些時候的威尼斯州立檔案館中大為出現。In 1366, Fantina, Marco’s eldest daughter with his wife took the family of her deceased husband to court for stealing the vast sums she had inherited from her father who had returned from the court of Kublai Khan absolutely laden with riches and made even more upon his return working in the family trading business.

繼承不是婚姻財產,這是當時已婚婦女的罕見經濟自主權 - 但她的丈夫馬可·布拉加丁(Marco Bragadin)的蛇隻是從她的下方搶走了它,然後讓膽汁的財富留給了他的蛇。家庭。他們拒絕將其歸還給她,並將其委托給兩名威尼斯治安法官,擔任已故馬可·布拉加丁資產的管理人員。

當時65歲的範蒂娜(Fantina)還沒有。Defying her powerful in-laws and the magistrates who obviously now had a huge vested interest in seeing Fantina continue to be cut off from her inheritance, she and her lawyer presented her father’s will, a full inventory of his treasures and all the evidence that they had been stolen from her to judges Marco Dandolo, Giovanni Michiel and Natale Ghezzo. The Polo inheritance recorded in the records of the suit includes 40 horse silks, six silver belts, 12 carpets, bolts of Chinese silk, 16 garments in vermillion silk woven with gold thread, 91 other silk garments, a bag of cashmere, 537 chests with amber beads, a large gold table, rings of gold, silver, ruby and turquoise, a sack of aloe wood and one piece of silk described as “almost changing color.”

經過漫長的法庭之戰,法官不僅對布拉加丁家族,而且反對他們的地方法官Andrea Contarini和NiccolòMorosini,因此對她有利。布拉加丁不得不為她的紫色繼承而全力償還她,康塔裏尼和莫羅西尼不得不以九枚金爵士的身份支付她的法律費用。

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